BELOW IS PARTIAL ANSWER
Summary- inadmissible evidence and the consequent effect of deliberation on jurors in disregarding bias
The paper deals with inadmissible evidence and the consequent effect of deliberation on jurors in disregarding bias. Deliberations, in this case, played a significant role in dealing with bias developed by jurors. Jurors were tested before and after deliberations to determine the effect of the bias developed after coming into contact with inadmissible evidence. The inadmissible evidence that causes bias according to most studies alluded to by the article is, that which is based on emotions. Non-emotional inadmissible evidence, in this case, is not dwelt upon by the document since it does little in creating bias in jurors. Jurors are observed on the issues regarding the development of bias particularly in cases where lawyers in the courtroom present it. More detail is given to It further uses settings that compare non-deliberate and deliberate jurors on their take regarding inadmissible evidence. The study looks into the use of inadmissible evidence and the effect on jurors though courts prohibit jurors from using such information in coming up with their verdicts. The study conducted two experiments. The first experiment gave post-deliberate jurors emotional evidence that was inadmissible and found out that deliberations affected jury bias. As such through the court’s judicial instructions forbade against the use of the inadmissible evidence, deliberation still reduced the bias that jurors had and would thus not affect their verdict largely.
The study took an experimental approach. Two groups took part in the experiment where one was a control group while the other included the participants to be tested in the study. Jurors were used and various cases dealt with to determine the biasness that would eventually develop. The study used mock jurors in groups to come up with results on the issue of bias about inadmissible evidence. Participants in the different experiments varied in number and they were chosen randomly. The jurors were to look into different cases and analyze the testimonies and summaries based on inadmissible and admissible evidence. The results showed that those jurors who deliberated on the various cases had moderation about bias when compared to those who did not use deliberation. Juror bias and deliberation are thus related when it comes to the use of inadmissible evidence. Though judicial instructions focus on preventing the access or use of inadmissible evidence there is a greater effect should unacceptable data be allowed into the courtroom. Their verdict is not compromised in the process coming up with a verdict. The findings show that the deliberations of the jury according to the study help reduce bias in case of admissible evidence.
The article considerably delves into the issue of bias and inadmissible evidence together with the effect of deliberation on jurors in the process. It is therefore important to concentrate on various aspects that affect jurors’ verdict in court. Court cases are important events, and people may be innocent and end up being jailed for crimes they did not commit.
Reliability and Validity
Reliability and validity are essential aspects of a study, particularly when dwelling on the trustworthiness of a study. The article further notes on how studies have “focused on individual non deliberating jurors” particularly about inadmissible evidence (London & Nunez 937). Consistency can be used in the place of reliability. Having consistent results after carrying out the same measures further shows that the study and the corresponding data is reliable. Having the same results regarding a certain study when carried out many times shows that the data is reliable. The results further point to the effectiveness of instruments in generating the data. Mostly if the data is tampered with or the researcher does not use the various tools properly improper data results. As such, the correct use of tools in collecting data in the study particularly in the experiment is reliable.