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Assignment: Hypothesis Testing Using Minitab

ASSIGNMENT

Summary
Jeffrey, as an eight-year old, established a mean time of 16.43 seconds for swimming the 25-yard freestyle, with a standard deviation of 0.8 seconds. His dad, Frank, thought that Jeffrey could swim the 25-yard freestyle faster by using goggles. Frank bought Jeffrey a new pair of expensive goggles and timed Jeffrey for 15 25-yard freestyle swims. For the 15 swims, Jeffrey’s mean time was 16 seconds. Frank thought that the goggles helped Jeffrey to swim faster than the 16.43 seconds. Conduct a hypothesis test using a preset α=0.05α=0.05. Assume that the swim times for the 25-yard freestyle are normal.

Set up the Hypothesis Test:

Since the problem is about a mean, this is a test of a single population mean.

HoHo: μ=16.43μ=16.43 HaHa: μμ <16.43<16.43

For Jeffrey to swim faster, his time will be less than 16.43 seconds. The “<” tells you this is left-tailed.

Determine the distribution needed:

Random variable: X¯¯¯X = the mean time to swim the 25-yard freestyle.

Distribution for the test: X¯¯¯X is normal (population standard deviation is known: σσ =0.8=0.8)

X¯¯¯X ~ N(μ,σXn√)N(μ,σXn) Therefore, X¯¯¯X ~ NN (16.43,0.815√)(16.43,0.815)
μ=16.43μ=16.43 comes from H0H0 and not the data. σ=0.8σ=0.8, and n=15n=15.

Calculate the p-value using the normal distribution for a mean:

p-value=P(x−<16)=0.0187p-value=P(x-<16)=0.0187 where the sample mean in the problem is given as 16.

p-value=0.0187p-value=0.0187 (This is called the actual level of significance.) The p-value is the area to the left of the sample mean is given as 16.

Graph:

μ=16.43μ=16.43 comes from HoHo. Our assumption is μ=16.43μ=16.43.

Interpretation of the p-value: If HoHo is true, there is a 0.0187 probability (1.87%) that Jeffrey’s mean time to swim the 25-yard freestyle is 16 seconds or less. Because a 1.87% chance is small, the mean time of 16 seconds or less is unlikely to have happened randomly. It is a rare event.

Compare αα and the p-value:

α=0.05p-value=0.0187α>p-valueα=0.05p-value=0.0187α>p-value
Make a decision: Since α>p-valueα>p-value, reject HoHo.

This means that you reject μ=16.43μ=16.43. In other words, you do not think Jeffrey swims the 25-yard freestyle in 16.43 seconds but faster with the new goggles.

Conclusion: At the 5% significance level, we conclude that Jeffrey swims faster using the new goggles. The sample data show there is sufficient evidence that Jeffrey’s mean time to swim the 25-yard freestyle is less than 16.43 seconds.

The p-value can easily be calculated using the TI-83+ and the TI-84 calculators:

Press STAT and arrow over to TESTS. Press 1:Z-Test. Arrow over to Stats and press ENTER. Arrow down and enter 16.43 for μ0μ0 (null hypothesis), .8 for σσ, 16 for the sample mean, and 15 for nn. Arrow down to μμ: (alternate hypothesis) and arrow over to <μ0μ0. Press ENTER. Arrow down to Calculate and press ENTER. The calculator not only calculates the p-value (p=0.0187p=0.0187) but it also calculates the test statistic (z-score) for the sample mean. μ<16.43μ16.43 is the alternate hypothesis. Do this set of instructions again except arrow to Draw (instead of Calculate). Press ENTER. A shaded graph appears with z=−2.08z=-2.08 (test statistic) and p=0.0187p=0.0187 (p-value). Make sure when you use Draw that no other equations are highlighted in Y=Y= and the plots are turned off.

When the calculator does a Z-Test, the Z-Test function finds the p-value by doing a normal probability calculation using the Central Limit Theorem:

P(x¯P(x < 1616 ) == 2nd DISTR normcdf (−10^99,16,16.43,0.8/15−−√)(-10^99,16,16.43,0.8/15).

The Type I and Type II errors for this problem are as follows:

The Type I error is to conclude that Jeffrey swims the 25-yard freestyle, on average, in less than 16.43 seconds when, in fact, he actually swims the 25-yard freestyle, on average, in 16.43 seconds. (Reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.)

The Type II error is that there is not evidence to conclude that Jeffrey swims the 25-yard free-style, on average, in less than 16.43 seconds when, in fact, he actually does swim the 25-yard free-style, on average, in less than 16.43 seconds. (Do not reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.)

Historical Note: The traditional way to compare the two probabilities, αα and the p-value, is to compare the critical value (z-score from αα) to the test statistic (z-score from data). The calculated test statistic for the p-value is −2.08-2.08. (From the Central Limit Theorem, the test statistic formula is z=x¯−μX(σXn√)z=x-μX(σXn). For this problem, x¯=16x=16, μX=16.43μX=16.43 from the null hypothesis, σX=0.8σX=0.8, and n=15n=15.) You can find the critical value for α=0.05α=0.05 in the normal table (see 15.Tables in the Table of Contents). The z-score for an area to the left equal to 0.05 is midway between -1.65 and -1.64 (0.05 is midway between 0.0505 and 0.0495). The z-score is -1.645. Since −1.645>−2.08-1.645>-2.08 (which demonstrates that α>p-valueα>p-value), reject HoHo. Traditionally, the decision to reject or not reject was done in this way. Today, comparing the two probabilities αα and the p-value is very common. For this problem, the p-value, 0.01870.0187 is considerably smaller than αα, 0.05. You can be confident about your decision to reject. The graph shows αα, the p-value, and the test statistics and the critical value.

A college football coach thought that his players could bench press a mean weight of 275 pounds. It is known that the standard deviation is 55 pounds. Three of his players thought that the mean weight was more than that amount. They asked 30 of their teammates for their estimated maximum lift on the bench press exercise. The data ranged from 205 pounds to 385 pounds. The actual different weights were (frequencies are in parentheses) 205(3) 215(3) 225(1) 241(2) 252(2) 265(2) 275(2) 313(2) 316(5) 338(2) 341(1) 345(2) 368(2) 385(1). (Source: data from Reuben Davis, Kraig Evans, and Scott Gunderson.)

Conduct a hypothesis test using a 2.5% level of significance to determine if the bench press mean is more than 275 pounds.

Set up the Hypothesis Test:

Since the problem is about a mean weight, this is a test of a single population mean.

HoHo: μμ =275=275 HaHa: μμ >275>275 This is a right-tailed test.

Calculating the distribution needed:

Random variable: X¯¯¯X = the mean weight, in pounds, lifted by the football players.

Distribution for the test: It is normal because σσ is known.

X¯¯¯X ~ NN (275,5530√)(275,5530)
x¯x =286.2=286.2 pounds (from the data).

σ=55σ=55 pounds (Always use σσ if you know it.) We assume μ=275μ=275 pounds unless our data shows us otherwise.

Calculate the p-value using the normal distribution for a mean and using the sample mean as input (see the calculator instructions below for using the data as input):

p-value=P(p-value=P( x¯x >286.2>286.2) =0.1323=0.1323.

Interpretation of the p-value: If HoHo is true, then there is a 0.1331 probability (13.23%) that the football players can lift a mean weight of 286.2 pounds or more. Because a 13.23% chance is large enough, a mean weight lift of 286.2 pounds or more is not a rare event.

Compare αα and the p-value:

α=0.025p-value=0.1323α=0.025p-value=0.1323

Make a decision: Since αα<p-valuep-value, do not reject HoHo.

Conclusion: At the 2.5% level of significance, from the sample data, there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the true mean weight lifted is more than 275 pounds.

The p-value can easily be calculated using the TI-83+ and the TI-84 calculators:

Put the data and frequencies into lists. Press STAT and arrow over to TESTS. Press 1:Z-Test. Arrow over to Data and press ENTER. Arrow down and enter 275 for μ0μ0, 55 for σσ, the name of the list where you put the data, and the name of the list where you put the frequencies. Arrow down to μ:μ: and arrow over to >μ0>μ0. Press ENTER. Arrow down to Calculate and press ENTER. The calculator not only calculates the p-value (p=0.1331p=0.1331, a little different from the above calculation – in it we used the sample mean rounded to one decimal place instead of the data) but it also calculates the test statistic (z-score) for the sample mean, the sample mean, and the sample standard deviation. μ>275μ>275 is the alternate hypothesis. Do this set of instructions again except arrow to Draw (instead of Calculate). Press ENTER. A shaded graph appears with z=1.112z=1.112 (test statistic) and p=0.1331p=0.1331 (p-value). Make sure when you use Draw that no other equations are highlighted in Y=Y= and the plots are turned off.

Statistics students believe that the mean score on the first statistics test is 65. A statistics instructor thinks the mean score is higher than 65. He samples ten statistics students and obtains the scores 65 65 70 67 66 63 63 68 72 71. He performs a hypothesis test using a 5% level of significance. The data are from a normal distribution.

Set up the Hypothesis Test:

A 5% level of significance means that α=0.05α=0.05. This is a test of a single population mean.

HoHo: μμ =65=65 HaHa: μμ >65>65
Since the instructor thinks the average score is higher, use a “>>”. The “>>” means the test is right-tailed.

Determine the distribution needed:

Random variable: X¯¯¯X = average score on the first statistics test.

Distribution for the test: If you read the problem carefully, you will notice that there is no population standard deviation given. You are only given n=10n=10 sample data values. Notice also that the data come from a normal distribution. This means that the distribution for the test is a student’s-t.

Use tdftdf. Therefore, the distribution for the test is t9t9 where n=10n=10 and df=10−1=9df=10-1=9.

Calculate the p-value using the Student’s-t distribution:

p-value=P(p-value=P( x¯x >67>67 )=0.0396=0.0396 where the sample mean and sample standard deviation are calculated as 67 and 3.1972 from the data.

Interpretation of the p-value: If the null hypothesis is true, then there is a 0.0396 probability (3.96%) that the sample mean is 67 or more.

Compare αα and the p-value:

Since α=.05α=.05 and p-value=0.0396p-value=0.0396. Therefore, α>p-valueα>p-value.

Make a decision: Since α>p-valueα>p-value, reject HoHo.

This means you reject μ=65μ=65. In other words, you believe the average test score is more than 65.

Conclusion: At a 5% level of significance, the sample data show sufficient evidence that the mean (average) test score is more than 65, just as the math instructor thinks.

The p-value can easily be calculated using the TI-83+ and the TI-84 calculators:

Put the data into a list. Press STAT and arrow over to TESTS. Press 2:T-Test. Arrow over to Data and press ENTER. Arrow down and enter 65 for μ0μ0, the name of the list where you put the data, and 1 for Freq:. Arrow down to μ:μ: and arrow over to >μ0>μ0. Press ENTER. Arrow down to Calculate and press ENTER. The calculator not only calculates the p-value (p=0.0396p=0.0396) but it also calculates the test statistic (t-score) for the sample mean, the sample mean, and the sample standard deviation. μ>65μ>65 is the alternate hypothesis. Do this set of instructions again except arrow to Draw (instead of Calculate). Press ENTER. A shaded graph appears with t=1.9781t=1.9781 (test statistic) and p=0.0396p=0.0396 (p-value). Make sure when you use Draw that no other equations are highlighted in Y=Y= and the plots are turned off.

Joon believes that 50% of first-time brides in the United States are younger than their grooms. She performs a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 50%. Joon samples 100 first-time brides and 53 reply that they are younger than their grooms. For the hypothesis test, she uses a 1% level of significance.

Set up the Hypothesis Test:

The 1% level of significance means that α=0.01α=0.01. This is a test of a single population proportion.

HoHo: pp =0.50=0.50 HaHa: pp ≠0.50≠0.50
The words “is the same or different from” tell you this is a two-tailed test.

Calculate the distribution needed:

Random variable: P’P’ = the percent of of first-time brides who are younger than their grooms.

Distribution for the test: The problem contains no mention of a mean. The information is given in terms of percentages. Use the distribution for P’P’, the estimated proportion.

P’P’ ~ NN (p,p⋅qn−−−√)(p,p⋅qn) Therefore, P’P’ ~ NN (0.5,0.5⋅0.5100−−−−−√)(0.5,0.5⋅0.5100) where p=0.50p=0.50, q=1−p=0.50q=1-p=0.50, and n=100n=100.

Calculate the p-value using the normal distribution for proportions:

p-value=P(p’p-value=P(p'< 0.470.47 or p’>0.53p’>0.53 ) =0.5485=0.5485

where x=53x=53, p’=xnp’=xn =53100=0.53=53100=0.53.

Interpretation of the p-value: If the null hypothesis is true, there is 0.5485 probability (54.85%) that the sample (estimated) proportion p’p’ is 0.53 or more OR 0.47 or less (see the graph below).

μ=p=0.50μ=p=0.50 comes from HoHo, the null hypothesis.

p’p’=0.53=0.53. Since the curve is symmetrical and the test is two-tailed, the p’p’ for the left tail is equal to 0.50−0.03=0.470.50-0.03=0.47 where μ=p=0.50μ=p=0.50. (0.03 is the difference between 0.53 and 0.50.)

Compare αα and the p-value:

Since α=0.01α=0.01 and p-value=0.5485p-value=0.5485. Therefore, αα< p-valuep-value.

Make a decision: Since αα<p-valuep-value, you cannot reject HoHo.

Conclusion: At the 1% level of significance, the sample data do not show sufficient evidence that the percentage of first-time brides that are younger than their grooms is different from 50%.

The p-value can easily be calculated using the TI-83+ and the TI-84 calculators:

Press STAT and arrow over to TESTS. Press 5:1-PropZTest. Enter .5 for p0p0, 53 for xx and 100 for nn. Arrow down to Prop and arrow to not equals p0p0. Press ENTER. Arrow down to Calculate and press ENTER. The calculator calculates the p-value (p=0.5485p=0.5485) and the test statistic (z-score). Prop not equals .5 is the alternate hypothesis. Do this set of instructions again except arrow to Draw (instead of Calculate). Press ENTER. A shaded graph appears with z=0.6z=0.6 (test statistic) and p=0.5485p=0.5485 (p-value). Make sure when you use Draw that no other equations are highlighted in Y=Y= and the plots are turned off.

The Type I and Type II errors are as follows:

The Type I error is to conclude that the proportion of first-time brides that are younger than their grooms is different from 50% when, in fact, the proportion is actually 50%. (Reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true).

The Type II error is there is not enough evidence to conclude that the proportion of first time brides that are younger than their grooms differs from 50% when, in fact, the proportion does differ from 50%. (Do not reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.)

Suppose a consumer group suspects that the proportion of households that have three cell phones is 30%. A cell phone company has reason to believe that the proportion is 30%. Before they start a big advertising campaign, they conduct a hypothesis test. Their marketing people survey 150 households with the result that 43 of the households have three cell phones.

Set up the Hypothesis Test:

HoHo: pp =0.30=0.30 HaHa: pp≠ 0.300.30
Determine the distribution needed:

The random variable is P’P’ = proportion of households that have three cell phones.

The distribution for the hypothesis test is P’P’ ~ NN (0.30,(0.30)⋅(0.70)150−−−−−−−−√)(0.30,(0.30)⋅(0.70)150)

The value that helps determine the p-value is p’p’. Calculate p’p’.

p’=xnp’=xn where xx is the number of successes and nn is the total number in the sample.

x=43x=43, n=150n= 150
p’ = 4315043150
What is a success for this problem?

A success is having three cell phones in a household.

What is the level of significance?

The level of significance is the preset αα. Since αα is not given, assume that α=0.05α=0.05.

Draw the graph for this problem. Draw the horizontal axis. Label and shade appropriately.

Calculate the p-value.

p-value = 0.7216

Make a decision. _____________(Reject/Do not reject) H0H0 because____________.

Assuming that αα = 0.05, α<p-valueα < p-value. The Decision is do not reject H0H0 because there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the proportion of households that have three cell phones is not 30%.

The next example is a poem written by a statistics student named Nicole Hart. The solution to the problem follows the poem. Notice that the hypothesis test is for a single population proportion. This means that the null and alternate hypotheses use the parameter pp. The distribution for the test is normal. The estimated proportion p’p’ is the proportion of fleas killed to the total fleas found on Fido. This is sample information. The problem gives a preconceived α=0.01α=0.01, for comparison, and a 95% confidence interval computation. The poem is clever and humorous, so please enjoy it!

Hypothesis testing problems consist of multiple steps. To help you do the problems, solution sheets are provided for your use. Look in the Table of Contents Appendix for the topic “Solution Sheets.” If you like, use copies of the appropriate solution sheet for homework problems.
My dog has so many fleas, They do not come off with ease. As for shampoo, I have tried many types Even one called Bubble Hype, Which only killed 25% of the fleas, Unfortunately I was not pleased. I’ve used all kinds of soap, Until I had give up hope Until one day I saw An ad that put me in awe. A shampoo used for dogs Called GOOD ENOUGH to Clean a Hog Guaranteed to kill more fleas. I gave Fido a bath And after doing the math His number of fleas Started dropping by 3’s! Before his shampoo I counted 42. At the end of his bath, I redid the math And the new shampoo had killed 17 fleas. So now I was pleased. Now it is time for you to have some fun With the level of significance being .01, You must help me figure out Use the new shampoo or go without?

Glossary
Central Limit Theorem
Given a random variable (RV) with known mean μμ and known standard deviation σσ. We are sampling with size n and we are interested in two new RVs – the sample mean, X¯X¯, and the sample sum, ΣXΣX. If the size nn of the sample is sufficiently large, then X¯size 12{ { bar {X}}} {}∼ N(μ,σn√)Nμσn  and ΣXΣsize 12{X} {} ∼ N(nμ,n−−√σ)N(nμ,nσ). If the size n of the sample is sufficiently large, then the distribution of the sample means and the distribution of the sample sums will approximate a normal distribution regardless of the shape of the population. The mean of the sample means will equal the population mean and the mean of the sample sums will equal n times the population mean. The standard deviation of the distribution of the sample means, σn√σn, is called the standard error of the mean.
Standard Deviation
A number that is equal to the square root of the variance and measures how far data values are from their mean. Notation: s for sample standard deviation and σσ for population standard deviation.
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Designing Interfaces and Dialogues

ASSIGNMENT

In our readings for this week, we’ve learned about designing interfaces and dialogues. For your assignment, you will apply what you’ve learned to make a recommendation.Here is the context for your assignment: Tim is happy with your work. The next part of the proposal will be to provide a high-level recommendation on the method of interacting with the proposed system.

For this part of the proposal, Tim wants you to provide a high-level or executive summary and make a recommendation (see below for details). Compose a proposal that is a minimum of 700 words (double-spaced) in length and responds to the two tasks listed below with the necessary references to support your work:

  1. Provide a high-level or executive summary of the following interaction methods: object-based, form, natural language, and command language.
  2. Then, provide a recommendation for the proposed system. Make sure you provide a clear justification for your recommendation.

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Quantitative Data Collection Instrument

ASSIGNMENT

Topic: Heart Disease among older adults

Using the topic and research question you developed in week 1, you will design a quantitative instrument that could potentially answer your topic/research question if it were to be applied to a quantitative study. Keep in mind, this may take some stretching if you wrote your question leaning quantitatively. The purpose here is not to box you in but to ensure that you have a solid understanding of both methodologies. This assignment functions similar to 3.1 but in a quantitative format. Finally, view the rubric and examples to make sure you understand the expectations of this assignment.

Directions:

You will develop a word document to include:

  1. Your research question in the form of a quantitative question (if it was not already).
  2. An instrument or protocol (survey, questionaire, archival data, etc) that could be used to answer the quantitative version of your research question. 

*Special note for those using archival data, you will describe the process of data retrieval for your archival data. See examples to help.

  1. A one paragraph description/justification of how your chosen instrument/protocol is the best choice for answering the quantitative version of your research question

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Understanding Lobbying and consumer Influence

ASSIGNMENT

Task: Written summative assignment 

Answer and develop the following points 

Students are required to answer the following questions regarding Sustainability.

1- Explain the consequences of overfishing and present at least 3 different options to improve the situation. Explain how the consumer can influence these options to happen soon.

 2- How oceans affect climate change? What are the economic consequences of thischange?

3- How can companies save energy in transportation, housing and production?

4- Explain the concept Sustainable marketing, sustainable consumption and sustainable production. Use examples to illustrate your point.

The report should be in word document format and must be uploaded to a Turnitin folder 

Formalities:

o Word: Students will not have a specific word counto Answer using 1 page maximum per questiono Font: Arial, size 12,5o Text alignment: Justified o The in-text references and the bibliography have to be in Harvard’s citation style.

Submission deadline: 24hours

It assesses the following learning outcomes:

It assesses the following learning outcomes:

Outcome 1: Understanding sustainability

Outcome 2: Understanding Ocean management

Outcome 3: Understanding lobbying and consumer influence 

Outcome 4: Understanding the ecological footprint

Outcome 5: Understanding circular economy

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The External Assessment Process

ASSIGNMENT

Q1: How does the external audit affect other components of the strategic-management process?
Q2: Use a series of two-dimensional (two-variable) graphs to illustrate the historical relationship among the following variables: value of the dollar, oil prices, and interest rates. Give one implication of each graph for strategic planning
Q3: Opportunities and threats usually result from an interaction among key environmental trends rather than from a single external event or factor
Lesson topic: the internal assessment process
Q1: Do you agree or disagree with the RBV theorists that internal resources are more important for a firm than external factors in achieving and sustaining competitive advantage? Explain your and their position.
Q2: Culture affects all the functions of the business. Discuss
Q3: Do you think cultural products affect strategy formulation, implementation, or evaluation the most? Why?
Important note:
For each question answers it’s very important to explain, justify, describe and give examples.

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Wholesale Operations Manager Case Study

ASSIGNMENT

Big Box General Stores is a new retailer that we’re about to start supplying with our Vitamins and Supplements. We’re going to be on the shelves in all 500 stores with our 3 best-selling vitamins and our two, brand new, not yet released, anxiety and heart supplements. The launch date is December 1st and they must have the products delivered in their DC Network by November 2nd.
For their initial order they need to seed all stores with product and would like to hold 2 weeks of supply in their DCs as backup inventory. We have a single facing per item in each store that holds 3 units per facing. The estimated sales by item by store are provided below (Units Per Store Per Week).
Product UPSPW
Biotin Vitamins 0.8
Immunity Vitamins 0.9
Sleep Vitamins 1.1
Anxiety Supplement 0.9
Heart Supplement 0.6
Big Box has three distribution centers that serve all 500 stores – they are located in CA, TX and PA. The pallet height limit for their DCs is 65 inches (including the height of the pallet).
DC Loc Store Per DC
CA 140
TX 180
PA 180
Total 500
Today is October 18th and, due to supply chain issues, we’ve just learned of a delay in receiving the new supplements. The current delivery schedule to our Fulfillment Center in Columbus, OH is below, but things are changing regularly. There are no supply issues with the 3 vitamins.
Delivering to our warehouse by:
Supplement 10/18 10/25 10/29 11/2
Anxiety Supplement 400 400 800 1400
Heart Supplement 500 900 800 800
Questions:
1. Share your fulfillment plan for the initial shipment to Big Box (please share your working for this solution)?
2. How many cartons and pallets do you expect to ship to each DC (please share your working)?
3. What factors did you consider in coming up with this shipment plan?
4. What other options did you consider in coming up with your fulfillment plan?
Appendix
Product dimensions
Product Qty per Carton Carton Width (in) Carton Depth (in) Carton Height (in) Cartons Per Pallet Layer
Biotin Vitamins 8 5.63 17.5 6 16
Immunity Vitamins 8 5.63 17.5 6 16
Sleep Vitamins 8 5.63 17.5 6 16
Anxiety Supplement 24 16.5 11.5 11.5 9
Heart Supplement 24 16.5 11.5 11.5 9

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Business Research Proposal and Literature Review

ASSSIGNMENT

Unit Learning Outcomes addressed: (a) Demonstrate an advanced ability to initiate and prepare an original research proposal.
(b) Demonstrate an advanced ability to prepare a literature review based on the support of an original research proposal.
(c) Demonstrate a critical appreciation of the ethical issues associated with an original research proposal and their implications for the research and the acceptability of the research by an ethics review committee.
(d) Critically evaluate the coherence, relevance and methodological merits of a given body of literature.
(e) Demonstrate a critical understanding of the theoretical, practical and professional contexts and significance of the research.
(f) Prepare a literature review that identifies and discriminates between concepts, issues, key findings and relevant theories most pertinent to the research proposal which the review supports.
Criteria for
Assessment:
• Knowledge and understanding
• Content and exploration of theories and ideas
• Analysis, synthesis and critical engagement
• Technical skills and referencing
Assessment Task: Students are required to submit a literature review for their chosen project
Your literature review should be shaped by your argument and should seek to establish your theoretical orientation, along with your methodological choices. Your literature review needs to conclude with what you have demonstrated as a ‘need for research’ in the area. This is the primary statement for the justification of the research project.
The literature review needs to be organized with sub-headers in a meaningful manner based on your research topic. The language used in a literature review is often evaluative and demonstrates your perspectives of the literature in relation to your research question. Your ‘voice’ or your perspective, position or standpoint, should be identifiable in the literature review.
It is important that, firstly, your theoretical position is clearly and strongly stated and that your critical evaluations are an integral part of this document. Secondly, it important that your language indicates your own or other writers’ attitudes to the research question. The literature review always ends with a research question that will be the focus of the Master of Business Research thesis.
You should follow the outline below:
Title of literature review: In not more than 12 words state the title of your proposed research project and literature review
Research Cluster: Identify the Research Cluster aligned to your research project
• Cluster 1: Leadership and Management of Large
Corporations
• Cluster 2: Leadership and Management of Not-for Profit Organisations
• Cluster 3: Leadership and Management of Start-ups, SMEs and Family Business
• Cluster 4: Leadership and Management of Technological and Digital Transformation Cluster 5: Leadership and Management of Sustainable Business Operations
• Cluster 6: Leadership and Management of Government and Multilateral Organisations
• Cluster 7: Leadership and Management of Tourism and
Hospitality Organisations
Introduction
Provide an overview of the literature review. Indicate the objectives of the literature review.
Literature review
Use relevant headings and sub-headings to organize your literature review.
Conclusion
Your conclusion should provide a summary of the literature and show the gaps in the literature to be addressed by the research project, the proposed methods to be used and the expected contribution to the field of research from undertaking the research project.
Submission Date: Week 9 (online submission).
Total Mark & Weighting: 35 marks | 35%
Students are advised that any submissions past the due date without an approved extension or approved extenuating circumstances incur a 5% penalty per calendar day,
calculated from the total mark e.g. a task marked out of 15 will incur a 1.75 mark penalty per calendar day.
Marking rubrics
Criteria HD (High Distinction) 85%-100% DN (Distinction)
75%-84% CR (Credit) 74%-65% P (Pass)
50%-64% F (Fail)
0%-49%
Knowledge and understanding
5 marks Command of the topic, unusual creativity, perception and insight, all suggesting that work should be published in an academic forum. Demonstrates command of the topic by showing creativity, perception and insight — a serious contribution to the academic debate. Demonstrates a well- informed understanding of the topic by showing
creativity and insight — a serious contribution to the academic debate. Understanding of contemporary academic debate, with some
creative input and insight, with a tendency toward description. Limited/poor understanding demonstrated. Any creative input is somewhat off the point.
Content and exploration of theories and ideas 10 marks Outstanding selection that makes a substantial contribution to academic debate. Outstanding selection from a wide relevant and innovative range of perspectives and sources. Selection from a wide and relevant range of perspectives and sources that draws upon contemporary academic debate. Relevant selection from a range of perspectives and sources. Sources are mostly integrated into the overall argument. Narrow selection, minimal use of sources, to support the argument.
Analysis, synthesis and critical engagement
15 marks Outstanding use of source material.
Excellent argument that is of the highest academic quality. Sources very well integrated into the overall argument. Clear well structured argument that is well crafted and Sources wellintegrated into the overall argument. Clear, cogent and wellstructured Mostly clear, cogent and wellstructured argument. Demonstrates criticality and Sources are not properly integrated into the argument. Absence of clear and cogent argument.
Incomplete analysis
Critical distance and outstanding analysis of the question, to a high degree of excellence. cogent. Critical distance and outstanding analysis of the question. argument.
Critical
distance and sound analysis of the question. generally good analysis. with a tendency to accept the source material at face value.
Technical skills and referencing
5marks Referencing impeccable using appropriate conventions.
No errors in grammar or spelling. Referencing clear and accurate using appropriate conventions.
Virtually no errors in grammar or spelling. Referencing clear and accurate using appropriate conventions. Good grammar and spelling. Referencing sufficiently clear and using an appropriate convention. Adequate grammar and spelling. References limited/inappropriate. Many errors in grammar and
spelling, making it difficult or impossible to read.

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Business Research Proposal and Literature Review

ASSIGNMENT

Assessment: Assessment 3 – Final Research Proposal and Literature Review
Unit Learning Outcomes addressed: (a) Demonstrate an advanced ability to initiate and prepare an original research proposal.
(b) Demonstrate an advanced ability to prepare a literature review based on the support of an original research proposal.
(c) Demonstrate a critical appreciation of the ethical issues associated with an original research proposal and their implications for the research and for the acceptability of the research by an ethics review committee.
(d) Critically evaluate the coherence, relevance and methodological merits of a given body of literature.
(e) Demonstrate a critical understanding of the theoretical, practical and professional contexts and significance of the research.
(f) Prepare a literature review that identifies and discriminates between concepts, issues, key findings and relevant theories most pertinent to the research proposal which the review supports.
Criteria for
Assessment:
• Knowledge and Understanding
• Content and exploration of theories and ideas
• Analysis, synthesis and critical engagement
• Technical skills and referencing
Assessment Task: In this task, you will develop a research proposal for a research project addressing Leadership and Management issues that is aligned to one of the Research Clusters in the School of Business.
This research proposal will be used to allocate your Research
Supervisors who will be appointed to supervisor your Master of
Business Research thesis and will also be reviewed by the
Research Committee to complete your Confirmation of Candidature requirements.
Drawing on your synthesis of the existing research literature in business and allied fields, you will identify a research question based on the theoretical, professional, or organizational ‘gap’ for a business problem that your proposed research will address. You will analyze the implications of various theoretical approaches in order to choose and develop an appropriate theoretical framework for your research. You will analyze the strengths and weaknesses of various methodological approaches before choosing and justifying a preferred methodology for your research.
You research proposal and literature review should comprise the following sections:
Research Project Title: A working title for the Master of Business Research thesis that is no more than 12 words
Research Cluster: Identify the Research Cluster aligned to your research project
• Cluster 1: Leadership and Management of Large
Corporations
• Cluster 2: Leadership and Management of Not-for Profit Organisations
• Cluster 3: Leadership and Management of Start-ups, SMEs and Family Business
• Cluster 4: Leadership and Management of Technological and Digital Transformation Cluster 5: Leadership and Management of Sustainable Business Operations
• Cluster 6: Leadership and Management of Government and Multilateral Organisations
• Cluster 7: Leadership and Management of Tourism and Hospitality Organisations
Executive Summary of the Research Project: In one paragraph state the purpose of the research, the research approach and the conclusion from the project.
Introduction: The introduction should provide an overview of the research project and issues addressed by the research. Place your project in conversation with other projects on similar topics.
Justification for the Research: Provide justifications for your project by explaining the need for the research, why your proposed research is important and what is the expected contribution of your research to the field of study.
Review of literature: The literature review should address and synthesise the relevant literature and prior research in the parent disciplines and relevant sub-disciplines.
Identification and definition of key terms: All key terms used need to be identified and definitions justified.
Evaluation of current theory and practice: Critically evaluate the current theories relevant to the research and identify gaps and related issues that the research project will address.
Research Objectives: State the general purpose of the project and outline the specific objectives you want to achieve by undertaking the research project.
Research Questions: Specify the key research questions you want to address in your research project. These questions should be consistent with your objectives.
Statement of the Research Problem: Clearly define your research problem. This section must address the following questions: “What is the gap that needs to be filled?” and/or “What is the problem that needs to be solved.
Statement of proposed research methodology: Outline the proposed research methodology such as quantitative methods, qualitative methods, or mixed methods. Also outline your research paradigm, research design, research strategy, sampling design, data collection method, and data analysis method. You must provide justifications for all your methodological decisions.
Statement of data sources and data collection methods: Outline how you propose to collect data for your research. Ensure this is a practical proposition and that you have taken account of the time required to collect data and any costs associated with data collection.
Evaluation of all ethical considerations: Identify the ethical concerns you anticipate and demonstrate how you will address them.
Statement of Expected Research Contribution: Prepare a statement outlining what is the expected contribution of your research project to the filed of research in the areas of theoretical development, methodological practice, leadership and / or management practice, policy or regulatory development or other areas of contribution.
Research timetable: Develop a timetable that will enable you to complete your proposed research thesis within the two semesters of study for the Master of Business Research thesis. This timetable must be realistic and you will be held accountable to meeting this timetable by your supervisors.

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Benefits and Risks in Internal and External Recruitment

ASSIGNMENT

Hello (Pvt) Ltd, a private sector company specialising in 24/7 call centre services, acting as an outsourced call centre provider representing large companies who don’t want to provide that service for themselves. It is based in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Exceptional functional and technical expertise coupled with extensive industry knowledge makes the ideal choice for a BPO firm to manage outsourced assignments. The superlative tertiary education platform backed by high English proficiency combined with a dynamic and upwardly mobile youth populace has catapulted the country to the apex of the worldwide offshore outsourcing market. The company prides itself on achieving exceptional service levels and exploiting cutting edge technology. The company encourages a team-based approach to meeting its demanding targets for response rates and for solving problems.
The company has been operating for ten (10) years now, steadily expanding its business. The originators of the company were conscious of a gap in the market for sales and service support and, with the aid of inward investment from the government, have developed a highly successful organisation.

The company encourages a team-based approach to meeting its demanding targets for response rates. When traditional manufacturing industries were at their peak, Colombo experienced very little unemployment. With the downturn in the traditional industry, unemployment rates reached an all-time high.
In addition to these high levels of unemployment, the potential workforce tends to be low skilled with higher than average representation among disadvantaged groups.

Hello, (Pvt) Ltd relocated to Colombo five years ago, attracted to the area by inward investment grants offered by the Government.
Hello, (Pvt) Ltd has a reputation throughout the industry for its innovative approach to HR. The employees’ number around 180+ with generally low attrition rates due to good team leadership and a clean and spacious working environment.

The organisation structure facilitates a supportive, enabling culture, where people feel valued as a key resource and have access to a wide variety of training and development to meet their needs and business needs. The company’s approach to its workforce is reflected in its desire to achieve the “Great Place to work” for the last five years.
The workforce at Hello (Pvt) Ltd is diverse, and the organisation benefits from the opportunity to recruit staff from a variety of disadvantaged groups. The workforce has above average representation of Minority Ethnic workers, disabled workers and workers with criminal records.
Hello, (Pvt) Ltd, geographically located in Colombo, Sri Lanka was well established as an Information Technology Enabled Service Provider Company.

The Company has established in the industry by its highly dedicated Professionals to provide total IT-enabled solutions services under one roof. Hello (Pvt) Ltd, is a leading provider of customer-centric call centre solutions and services. Its services are aimed at managing, monitoring, and fostering customer interaction and relationship programs through various communication channels. Hello (Pvt) Ltd, helps customers to create and maintain superior end-to-end service for their customers. Hello (Pvt) Ltd, looking to remove communication and workflow barriers or automate customers’ business processes, Hello (Pvt) Ltd, solutions allow business clients to strongly build their customer relationships and workforce optimization for lower investments.
To realize this vision, mission Hello (Pvt) Ltd, will continually communicate with, and learn from Customers, to improve services. Hello (Pvt) Ltd, keep in tune with the technology, no matter how fast it moves, to ensure customers always have the best service available to them.
Vision: “We make your business dreams come true.-
Mission statement: “Hello (Pvt) Ltd offers a unique 24/7 call centre service that keeps client and customer satisfaction as the priority. We aim to act with integrity and professionalism for all our clients as we interact with their customers, offering them a high quality, pricecompetitive and consistent service. Our 180-seat call centre is state of the art and provides our staff with a modern, spacious and inspiring place to work.”
Values are integrity, teamwork, enthusiasm, Can-do and will-do attitude, taking initiatives, strong leadership, and creativity in process orientation”
The company has four business objectives in this year’s Corporate Plan, relating to Human Resources, which have to be achieved within the next two years:
Goal: to improve employee retention even more, thus reducing recruitment and training costs
Business objectives
i. To develop and implement a training programme that details recruit activities for the first 90 days on the job. ii. To implement one-to-one meetings with employees to build rapport and find out any issues. iii. To increase team leaders’ ability to motivate and build strong team ethos across the organisation.
iv. To maintain a productive and positive employee environment or culture which will reduce employee turnover in identified areas.
The company’s approach to its workforce is reflected in its desire to increase. The four business objectives aim to not only improve retention rates but to develop the workforce further. Employees require to be upskilled in new technology and all supervisors, old and new, require to improve their motivational and team leadership skills.
You are the Human Resource (HR) Assistant for Hello (Pvt) Ltd. The HR Manager has advised you that a vacancy has arisen for the post of team leader for the Customer Relationships section of the company.
He has delegated the responsibility for the recruitment of this post to you, but you have been asked to prepare a report in which you outline the steps that you will take to fill this vacancy. This is the first real opportunity that you have had to demonstrate to the HR Manager your knowledge and ability to demonstrate excellence in HR practice, and you are keen to perform well.
You should answer all questions below. Your response for all questions should be a total of approximately 1000 words. Your response must be specific to the particular organisation given in the case study. It should not provide exhaustive lists of the theory that does not apply to the example in the case.
Q1- Explain identifiable recent trends in management at Hello (Pvt) Ltd
(10 Marks) Q2- Discuss the responsibilities HR department in the context of the case study.
(10 Marks) Q3- Discuss the current method of collection of Job Analysis information in this organisation base on two methods of Job Analysis information collection process.
(15 Marks)
Q4- Explain the responsibilities of the CEO in strategic workforce planning.
(10 Marks)
Q5- Discuss benefits and risks in internal and external recruitment in terms of Hello (Pvt)
Ltd.
(10 Marks)
Q6- Due to the Covid-19 pandemic situation, there is a labour surplus created at Hello (Pvt) Ltd. If you are the HR Manager of this company how you will address this issue?
(15 Marks)
Q7- List and explain elements of reward management to the CEO of the company.
(10 Marks)
Q8- Explain the benefits of Health and Safety at the workplace to CEO in terms of employees and employers.
(10 Marks)
Q9- Describe employee disciplinary procedures to be implemented at Hello (Pvt) Ltd.
(10 Marks)

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BUSINESS STATISTICS

Instructions:


This is an individual assignment with a total of 40 marks. The allocation of marks is as follows:
Statistical Analysis: 32
(including Excel)
Professional Report: 8
Total: 40

The response to the assignment must be provided in the form of a professional report with no more than 10 pages (excluding cover page). The structure of your professional report must include: 1] A Title, 2] An Executive Summary, 3] An Introduction, 4] Analysis, and 5] Conclusions.
You must submit an electronic copy of your assignment in Canvas. See the attached Template for your submission for more details.
This assignment requires the use of Microsoft Excel. If you have Windows, you will need to use the Data Analysis Tool Pack. If you have a Mac with Excel 2011, you may need to use StatPlus: MAC LE. The Excel workbook you submit needs to be clear and carefully organised. It will be treated as an appendix to your report, i.e. not included in the page count. You will need to take the relevant results from your Excel workbook and incorporate into your report. Do not refer to the Excel workbook within the Professional report. The Report needs to be standalone.
Presentation Instructions:
Your written professional report should comply with the following presentation standards:
1. Typed using a standard professional font type (e.g. Times Roman), 12-point font size.
2. 1.5-line spacing, numbered pages, and clear use of titles and section headings.
3. Delivered as a Word (.doc or .docx) or PDF (.pdf) file.
4. Checked for spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Where relevant, round to 3 decimal places.
5. With all relevant tables and charts, the report should be no more than 10 pages long.
Problem Description:
This is a further analysis of the gender pay gap in the Australian population. According to a recent report by KPMG Consulting, gender discrimination continues to be the single largest factor contributing to the gender pay gap (KPMG, 2019). In order to estimate the extent of discrimination in the job market where women with identical labour market characteristics as their male counterparts receive different wages, you will estimate a set of linear regression models.
Since this is an additional analysis on the gender pay gap, the content in the Introduction section of your report may overlap with the one in the Group Assignment. However, you are encouraged to develop/source new background materials. You will use the same dataset as in Assignment 2. The data are drawn from the 2017 Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. The sample used for analysis comprises 824 full-time Australian workers in the age group 20-74. The dataset contains the following information:
1. Worker’s earnings: weekly earnings in 1000 AU dollars of full-time workers. [note the unit of measurement]
2. Gender: the dummy variable male = 1 if the individual is a male, and = 0 for a female.
3. Educational attainment: the dummy variable degree = 1 if the individual has a bachelor degree or higher qualification, and = 0 for lower than degree qualifications.
4. Skill level: the dummy variable skill = 1 if the individual is highly skilled, and = 0 if not highly skilled.
5. Experience: number of years of work experience.
[Marks distribution: 5 + 6 + 9 + 2 + 5 + 2 + 3 = 32 marks; professional report = 8 marks]
Locate the data file (IndividualBusStats.xls) on CANVAS.
1. Before estimating the regression equation, conduct a preliminary analysis of the relationship between workers’ earnings and 1) gender; 2) educational attainment; 3) skill level; and 4) experience. Use tables and/or appropriate graphs for the categorical variables (male, degree, skill) and the continuous variable (experience). Interpret your findings by answering the following questions: how much more/less does a male worker earn compared to a female worker? how much more/less does a degree holder earn versus a non degree holder? How much more/less does a highly skilled worker earn versus a worker who is not highly skilled? What kind of relationship do you observe between workers’ earnings and experience? (5 marks)
2. Use a simple linear regression to estimate the relationship between workers’ earnings (Y) and gender (X) (Model A). You may use the Data Analysis Tool Pack. Based on the Excel regression output, first write down the estimated regression equation and interpret the slope coefficient. Carry out any relevant two-tailed hypothesis test of the slope coefficient using the critical value approach, at the 5% significance level, showing the step by step workings/diagram in your report. Interpret your hypothesis test results. (6 marks)
3. Now use a multiple regression model to explore the relationship of workers’ earnings (Y) with, gender (X1), educational attainment (X2), skill level (X3) and work experience (X4) (Model B). You may use Data Analysis Tool Pack for this. Based on the Excel regression output, first write down the estimated regression equation and interpret the slope coefficients. Carry out any relevant two-tailed hypothesis tests for each individual slope coefficient using the p-value approach, at the 5% significance level. Carry out an overall significance test using the p-value approach. Carefully interpret your hypothesis test results. (9 marks)
4. Interpret the R-squared in Model A and adjusted R-squared in Model B. Which one is a better model? Why? (2 marks)
5. Compare the coefficient of gender in Model A and Model B. Explain carefully why the results are different, relating your discussion to gender discrimination. (5 marks)
6. Predict the earnings of a male worker who has a university degree, is highly skilled and has 10 years of work experience. Next, predict the earnings of a female worker with the same characteristics. (2 marks)
7. If you could request additional data to study the factors that influence workers’ earnings, what extra variables would you request? Discuss two such variables, explaining why you choose them and how each of your proposed variables could be measured in the regression model. [You could draw evidence from journal articles, newspapers, etc] (3 marks)

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